Smart Cities India Inc. Challenges

Smart Cities Plan in India by NEC

Smart Cities Plan in India by NEC

There is much talk and there are funds. This is all great but where do you start? I did review a few bids for Project Management Consulting among others, which give me a general view on the direction. My personal opinion is this is a big bite operation! It is going to be difficult to chew and digest. In other words. implement and sustain. Having said that, I believe it is the way to go; India has a difficult path ahead. It is not about right or wrong, it is more dependent on the need of the citizens and for sustainable living.

While this is entirely my opinion let me throw back on past Smart-Cities projects, their intent, execution, and management. The problems they did NOT have are of infrastructure and unplanned growth in cities full of encroachment on public land. And let’s not forget population and waste overflow where India has a huge challenge.

Dense Cities 2, Population, infrastructure

Dense Cities 2, Population, infrastructure

In the developed countries the focus is more tuned and visible on Renewables, Smart Grid for energy management, Citizen Engagement, Water smart grids, Resource management, Mobility, and Government interactions.

I see the same hues in India however, there are issues in Indian cities – population in India is a biggie, waste management, power, water supply, sanitation. The Planned Footprint of Smart Cities Idea in India to me seems kind of, I want all things now!

Dense  cities of India

Dense cities of India

While I am sure there is adequate consulting help and input, but the execution, in India has been always a problem. Except for the Delhi Metro, that is a classic case study.

The Smart Grid City was Boulder Colorado, complete Energy management, and Wind energy storage. They also provide users ability to manage their energy use. This was way back in 2008 and there started the talk of Smart Cities.

Given that nearly 60% of energy produced in India is not billable, theft and line loss. This is a huge number that is spewing carbon. But it is a critical area that needs focus to generate revenue from renewable energy generation and streamlining the collection; I do not see these on the list in any city’s plan in India. This is a major source of diversification into renewable energy.energytheft

City of Seoul, South Korea had a major problem with trash collections and overflow. They solved this by placing additional specialized bins, smart enough to ping for pickup. Of course, it is a lot more than that as it is on a network and also does pick routes planning etc.

seoul intelligent trash collection

Trash overflow has been a perineal problem in India, wherever you go. While I do see streets are a lot cleaner than say 10 years back. This problem persists because Indians, us all are very bad with our disposal of trash habits. We are compelled to crumple and throw the chip wrappers and or plastic bottles just about where we are standing. Dogma! Just saying…

I have a friend who manages a Trash pickup business in Delhi; he says the only waste that is going to landfills is the wet waste. Because hey we are very good at recycling and extending the life of what we buy. So it is organic trash. Now a good old anaerobic digester (Michigan State Univ.) will do wonders. How about a plan to deploy them across smart cities? One decent size digester per locality is doable. Laws to ensure institutions and business also deploy and manage their trash locally. Not only can you generate energy but also get the waste as manure! Waste management and Recycling go hand in hand and they make revenue. The bi-product of these digesters is fertilizer, great use in sustaining food production and greening the environment.Anaerobic digestor

 What I am trying to say is by and large the approach for developed countries has been taking one problem at a time and nailing it! That is in no way suggesting that multiple projects cannot be seeded. What you put in place will have to be sustainable and not just superficial, that is where rules and regulations get into the game, creating major rules for city managers.


The Jungle VIP



I wanna be like you!

Another Jungle Book eulogy here.  Which is the prelude to this blog.

And Without malice to big NGO’s or climate change proponent organizations and corporates. And in support of all those individual who are waging their lone battle for action on climate change.

I am the Jungle VIP. And there are many like me. Plebeians concerned, about the environment and climate change that is quickly overtaking the planet. While we have a small tribe of followers and supporters our work goes mostly unnoticed, still effective and relevant. Be sure and believe that we are as enthusiastic and as committed as the NGO’s and other proponents of climate change. However, we do not have the muscle and resources (FIRE) for demonstrated action (song). Nor do we have celebrity endorsements.


Now if I had the fire, here is what I will do. While being focused on stated objectives, be it education, poverty, health and the environment. I will mobilize the base to demonstrate reduction in fossil fuel use, particularly in energy use at home, office and transportation choices. Two of the biggest contributors of Carbon Emissions.

Here is how:

Individuals (your small donors) ask them to save 1 kWh of energy use per day at home. Every million of them have the potential to reduce emissions by 500 MtCO2 – PER DAY

For Corporates, get them to engage their employees to save energy use at home, a Fortune 500 typically averages 25,000 employees. That is a potential of saving of 12.5 MtCO2 – PER DAY

Propagate the use of smarter transportation choices, car pool, and public transportation

Drive this via competition goals, recognition and commendation, at national and global conferences.

Mobilize the national media and emphasis on including climate change events/progress along with the weather news, so no fear of ratings going down. (It is unfortunate that most of climate change messages are not carried by media programming as it affects rating.)

All this does not need setting up further infrastructure or a great deal of funds. Second some thoughts will run around how do we sustain it? Great question, the simple answer is not longevity of the program but demonstration of what is the potential impact is important, for embracing climate action!

I and others like me the plebeians will continue to struggle and work for what we believe in, we need to mobilize individual action, as climate change includes all of us believe it or not. And I do not have fear. Who cares if I succeed in getting this message across and get the common man to be inclusive of the action on climate change? I do and I will continue screaming at the top of my voice (it’s small voice) people will eventually get with it. I believe!

Photo Courtsey: and


Climate Change Messaging is not cutting it!



It all started with Global Warming, a term coined way back in 1975 in a paper by geochemist Wallace Broecker. Over the year Global Warming has morphed to Climate Change. The problem remain the same, none of the world takes this as seriously as it should, period! Hang in there; before you write me off as going off half-cocked…I am not taking away the progress we have made by the NGOs, climate change Proponents, Corporate and the Politico’s, culminating in the recently concluded COP 21 in Paris, 2015.

But climate change is still considered a “relative distant threat” by Americans, a recent study at Yale. Now this is not unique to the United States, No Sir! Pretty much, the same across the globe, percentage who agree could differ.

I worry as you don’t! That is pretty much how I generally feel about this problem.


Therein also hides the simple truth and the crux of the problem, the need for communicating effectively, and wide! How do we create more effective messaging and what other mediums can we use? Needless, to say the most powerful medium is still Audio-Visual, with the potential for large scale distribution across nationalities and languages.

While speeches, lectures and propaganda are all part of the deal, the idea is to convert these to visual messages and with the designed intent for large-scale distribution. In my personal opinion we are not adequately capitalizing on the opportunity or leveraging all our resources, to get this message out and far and wide. We have to seriously change the course of the strong march forward of climate change and its growing grip on our planet.

While Big Governments, Bill Gates and Elon Musk continue to plan, design and execute on large scale and impactful Ideas. I think they can do with some help from the plebeians, as well.

So I did some wishful thinking… and I thought about memberships at Facebook (1.591Bil.); Google searches per day (3.5Bil.). The common factor was these organizations were not innovators but improvers and both these organizations have seen phenomenal success/growth and very quickly. One was a social platform, the other an information platform. This was a great business opportunity for both these organization. The found the right gap in the market (read need) and went about filling it.

Have we ever considered while engaged in raising
our voices for the ongoing threat to our planet, that this as a business problem? Businesses of keeping the planet live! I doubt it!

Is the world yearning or ready for an information and social revolution on climate change? Or is there such a need already with the global citizens? I am not sure that this market space is well defined but it is digital content rich for sure! May be it is about time to create the need!

I feel that we need an all new approach to the messaging we are address climate change and the threat to our planet. I believe that it is time we consider the opportunity cost of the course of action we are taking on climate change. Climate Change is a Business People!

It is the business of staying alive!

Wealth from waste



(Image of sea glass: Flickr user mckennaslivensky)

Waste is not an inherent property of a material. It is rather its use that dictates what it is. Something can be waste for a period of time but useful in some other time. In our universe, stars die and the same star dust gives birth to new stars. Another example is of that of a human body. It flushes out waste products because they are of no use to the body. Even though it is a waste to the human body, when it goes into the soil it can become a fertilizer for plants. To see how this happens, look at this interesting video:

Kinds of waste:

We know waste is a relative word. Waste also can be classified into different types. We will limit this discussion to solid waste. Solid waste can be classified as follows:

  • Household waste
  • Industrial waste
  • Biomedical waste

Solid waste management:


Source: Opportunities to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Materials and
Land Management Practices (PDF)
(98 pp, 1.6MB), U.S. EPA, 2009.

Based on the statistics shown in the above figure, EPA has created the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). A solid waste planner or an organization can use this model for tracking and for voluntarily reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The model is periodically updated with new information for efficient solid waste management. Countries across the globe have their own waste management protocols in place and undergo constant improvement.

Waste management is crucial to well-being of all species on this planet. It concerns health, environment and aesthetics. In a recent UN report, it was found that plastic accounts for $13B in Damage to Marine Habitat. In 2012, the United Nations reported that in five years, the world’s electronic waste would grow by 33% from 49.7 million tons to 65.4 million tons. That’s the weight of 200 Empire State Buildings or 11 Great Pyramids of Giza. – Tech Republic

Construction waste contains rubble, wood and toxic elements like lead. These are screened and recycled. Some of the waste can be reduced or reused. Depending on its kind, wastes are managed differently. Waste can be reduced, reused or recycled. It can be disposed/dumped, combusted, gasified, pyrolyzed, and anaerobically digested or incinerated. There are various technologies that do this and more.

The more time a material it takes to degrade, the more resilient it is to environmental conditions, the more stable it is. Stability is inversely proportional to degradability. Did you know that Tin, aluminium, and other metal items such as cans can take as much as centuries to degenerate? A glass can take as much as a million years! The Glass Beach in MacKerricher State Park near Fort Bragg, California is full of such sea glass. It’s going to stay that way for a million years until we do something about it. The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate is given in tables here and here.

Waste to energy:

Since we don’t have enough land to dump all the waste and since some processes of managing waste are expensive, people look to using this waste to generate energy. This waste is processes in plants that are called ‘Waste to Energy Plants’ (WtE). The process is known as ‘Energy recovery’.

Example (1) Biogas plant:

Biogas plant is a classic example of such a plant. Household and agricultural waste are anerobically digested (treated in absence of oxgen) or fermented. This produces gases such as methane. These can then be combusted with oxygen. Lots of energy evolves when we do this to biomass. This energy can be used as a fuel. Garbage is not only capable of being transformed into fuel but it can also be converted to specific chemicals. A plant that converts biomass into not just fuel, heat or electricity but to also chemicals is called a bio refinery. The chemicals produced in such a plant are known as renewable chemicals.

Example (2) Plastic to fuel:

Waste plastic can be converted back into its basic hydrocarbons – oil (biofuel).

Resource recovery:

 In our electronic world, a large amount of electronic waste (e-waste) is generated.  Its disposal is tricky to manage since it contains toxic elements. This calls for resource recovery. It recovers valuable elements from the e-waste to be used back in the electronic manufacturing processes.

In India, dust washers sweep the streets that are home to an array of jewellery shops. What they find in the dust is gold. This is another example of resource recovery. Street cleaning is thus a part of environmental services. Companies think of this as a source of income. Veolia Environmental Services believes it can find at least £1 million worth of materials like platinum, palladium and rhodium from the muck swept up from Britain’s streets each year. – The Telegraph

Energy from water in so many ways


waterEnergy for water and water for energy is a concept called as Water-energy-nexus. It means that we can obtain energy from water and we also need energy to make water usable. In this blog post, we are going to see how energy can be obtained from water.

Energy from water can be obtained by following ways:

  • Hydro-power
  • Energy from compounds in seawater
  • Osmotic power
  • Tidal energy/Wave energy
  • Sea water temperature differences
  • Water splitting

Let’s see how each one of these works.


When water is in motion, that is if it is either running as in an ocean or falling as in a waterfall, it is full of kinetic energy. This energy can be converted to useful energy i.e. electricity. Electricity generated from hydro-power is known as hydroelectricity. Hydro-power satisfies 20% of the world’s needs, making it the most widely used form of renewable energy so far.



(Image: UNESCO)

Energy from compounds in seawater:

Seawater covers two-thirds of our planet. US Navy wants to power warships with it. They aren’t making use of the fact that water has salt, but that it can get hydrogen and carbon dioxide from it, turning them into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. What’s even more interesting is that the technology created by the US Navy scientists simultaneously captures hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

Want to do some DIY project that involves seawater to energy? Have a look at the following video of how one can make a salt water battery. The reason we can use the salinity of water is because salt in the water helps it conduct electricity. Distilled water that is free of salts is a poor conductor of electricity. Salt water is thus as an electrolyte solution since it conducts electricity. Common salt is an ionic compound that ionizes into sodium and chloride ions when dissolved in water. A very good explanation of how a salt battery works is given here.

Osmotic power:

Just as second law of thermodynamics that says heat naturally flows from higher temperatures to lower temperatures, so does the water in saline water. If fresh water and seawater are kept side by side, separated by a membrane that only lets water pass and not salt, we will see that water from the freshwater side will move towards seawater side. Thus the concentration of salt will go on increasing on the fresh water side. This is known as osmosis. The concentration difference or the salinity gradient is what creates electricity. This is because in order to stabilize the concentration on both the sides, pressure is compensated which in turn drives the turbine that generates electricity.

Tidal energy/Wave energy:

Tidal or wave energy is the energy obtained from tides/waves. Various organizations are trying to harness this kind of energy. UC Berkeley is developing a new Wave Energy Converter that is able to efficiently harvest this energy. It is called a ‘Wave Carpet’. It is inspired from mud because mud dampens ocean waves. CETO on the other hand is a first operating wave energy array scheme in the world. It not only converts wave energy to electricity, it also converts saline water to fresh water. The Swansea Bay tidal lagoon project in the UK and the MeyGen tidal array project in Scotland are two of the large-scale tidal power projects currently under development. Another interesting project is the use of dielectric materials to convert the movement of water into electricity, something that can be used on our houses or in our toilets.

In theory, oceans could power the entire globe without adding any pollution to the atmosphere. And they could provide a more dependable source of electricity than the wind or sun. – Nature

Seawater temperature differences:

Research has indicated that electricity can be obtained from temperature gradients in Pacific. This concept is the newest of all.

Water splitting:

Water can be split into its basic elements: hydrogen and oxygen. It happens during photosynthesis. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. There are various ways to split water. Two of the many ways to split water are electrolysis and photo-catalysis. People who promote hydrogen as a highly potential fuel, promote this technology and call it the hydrogen economy.

Basics of wind power-Part II


windmill1(Image: Wikimedia)

Just like solar power, wind power is another renewable energy source with zero carbon emissions.  This is only if you consider the entire life cycle of the wind farm to be carbon emissions free. A group of wind turbines together are called as a wind farm. Remember, a windmill when used for electricity generation is called as a wind turbine. There are two kinds of windfarms: offshore and onshore. As self-explanatory it is, offshore windfarms are on land while those are not are on the sea. The first onshore windfarm was built in 1980 in the USA and first offshore windfarm in the UK, eleven years after.

Stuff that makes a wind turbine:

A wind turbine can rotate either about a horizontal axis or a vertical axis. What you see these days are horizontal axis wind turbines. Following are the parts/stuff that are needed to make a horizontal axis wind turbine:

  • Rotor blades or simply blades
  • Shaft: High speed shaft and Low speed shaft
  • Nacelle : House of the Generator and the Gear Box/Transmission
  • Tower
  • Base/Foundation
  • Anemometer and Wind vane
  • Controller
  • Brake
  • Pitch
  • Yaw drive and Yaw motor
  • Paint/color

Let’s look at them one by one:

Rotor blades: These are just like the one in a helicopter but placed in a different way. When wind flows, it creates a low pressure area behind the blade which pulls it and makes it turn. The blades keeps turning as long as the wind keeps flowing. Most wind turbines have two or three blades. Wind turbines with two bladed designs are cheaper and efficient than three bladed designs. But two bladed designs are noisy and hence are suitable for offshore windfarms. The shape of these blades is guided by aerodynamic studies. These blades have to be long, light, thin, strong and cost effective. Material of construction (MOC) for blades include glass fiber and carbon fiber. Aluminum and wood are also considered as MOC but mainly for small scale wind turbines. From afar, the blades will seem to be moving at a very slow speed. It is around 20 rpm (revolutions per minute). The tip of the blade though is running at 150 mph (miles per hour) or 241 kph (kilometre per hour). Look at this video and see what a speed of 150 mph means.

Shaft: There are two kinds of shafts in a wind turbine, high speed and low speed. In the horizontal axis wind turbines, these shafts align with the direction of the wind. The low speed shaft is connected to the center of the rotor, the point where the blades meet. The blades transfer their rotational energy to mechanical energy here. The high speed shaft drives the generator.

Nacelle: This section contains the generator and the gear box. The generator is what produces electricity. The capacity of the generator varies according to its application. It uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. It is a conductor (a coiled wire) surrounded by magnets. When one moves with respect to another, it induces voltage in the conductor, which in turn generates current flow. The gear box is an assembly of parts similar to a wrist watch i.e. a set of gears. It connects the two shafts together. This amplifies the incoming speed to a much larger speed suitable for power generation. Now we have the mechanical energy converted into electrical energy.

Tower: All horizontal axis wind mills have a tower. It takes the blades to the desired altitude. This year GE launched a new kind of tower called the space frame tower. Have a look at it here. The most widely used material for tower construction is steel. It is a lattice framework like the one by GE and is covered up by other materials like PVC.

Anemometer and Wind vane: Anemometer measures wind speed and a wind vane measures wind direction. Both these data are transferred to the controller which then makes sure the wind turbines works efficiently no matter what the wind speed or direction is.

Controller: It knows when to start a wind turbine and when to shut it off. Too much wind and there is a fear of damage to the wind turbine.

Break: Stops the wind turbine during emergencies.

Pitch: It helps rotor speed within operational limits. It is guided by the controller.

Yaw drive and yaw motor: These keep the rotor facing the wind direction wherever the wind blows.

Base/Foundation: This is the structural support on which the wind turbines stand tall and fixed to the ground. It is made of cement.

Paint/color: Wind turbines are colored white for aesthetic purpose.

Have a deeper look at the wind turbine by clicking here.

Basics of wind power-part I



(Image: Courtesy Hongkong HIWIN)

Ever played with a pinwheel? If yes, that was your very own windmill there. If not, do not fret. You can make one for yourself. Wind power can be harnessed for various applications otherthan a pinwheel. It can be used to generate electricity or for water pumping or to sail away some place using a hot air balloon or a sailing vessel on water. To make this possible we need machines called windmills. Windmills consist of vanes that sway with the wind, converting wind energy to rotational energy, like the one in the picture above. Rotational energy is kinetic energy which is then converted into electrical energy. The machine is called a wind turbine in this case, a windmill for power generation. They were used to grind grain and pump water. Solar wind power on the other hand is the power obtained from gases/charged particles from the sun flowing in outer space.

This section of the series will cover the very basic question of this series and it is:

What are winds and how are they formed?

Wind is basically a flow of air/gases. When the sun shines on our planet, it falls directly on the equator, well most part of it, that’s why it is so hot in there. The air at the equatorial region gains heat and rises up. This is because warmer air has lower density than colder air. You can easily test this in a kitchen. This is the reason exhaust fans are placed at the top side of the kitchen. Coming back to the warm air, as it rises, it leaves a void where it was before. This region of void is called ‘low pressure area’. The wind that is relatively colder than the warm air replaces this low pressure area. The cycle continues and you experience winds.

You can see a beautiful global wind map here. It is updated every few hours. Can you notice the Coriolis effect there? Due to the Coriolis effect, the winds in the northern hemisphere spin clockwise, while in the southern hemisphere they spin anti-clockwise. Quiet famous among the sailors is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). It is where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together. Trade winds are the winds on the equator. The Coriolis effect twists them into a certain direction. Check out the map of prevailing winds on Earth. You can see in the global wind map how wind patterns are more dominant over a certain areas. These are the areas where windmills are installed.

One can study aerodynamics (study of air/gases in motion), fluid mechanics (studies fluids and forces on them) and fluid dynamics (studies all kinds of fluid in motion).Wind engineering on the other hand takes all these fields plus meteorology and information systems to study the effect of winds on things around us.

Historical use of wind power:

Archaeologists have found windmills in China and Egypt dating as far back as 500 BC. The following is a snapshot of a watermill/windpump taken from Popular Science, Issue: Oct, 1933.


(Image: Modernmechanix)

Windmills were also used as drainage mills for draining land that is below sea level. Animal power was then employed. The Dutch windmills of the Netherlands are known for this. For example, horse-mills. People also used wind power to propel ships & boats on the ocean. At the cusp of 1900s, experiments began on the wind turbines you see now. In between this period and the early watermills, the heat engine that ran on fossil fuels entered the spotlight. It was in 1941 that technological developments lead to the world’s first megawatt-size wind turbine started operating. It was called the Smith-Putnam wind turbine.

Interesting story:

In Hindu mythology, there’s an interesting story about a deity called ‘Vayu’ – Lord of the winds. (Vayu translates into ‘air’ in English). His spiritual son, Hanuman, as a kid, mistakes sun for a fruit (a mango). Hanuman can fly. So he sets out to reach the sun, to grab a bite of him. At the same time, Rahu, a deity that causes eclipse is on a chase for the sun. It happens that Hanuman and Rahu clash each other. Rahu complains about the situation to the god of deities, Indra. Indra goes on and throws a thunderbolt (aka Vajra, a weapon) at Hanuman. Bam! Poor Hanuman falls back down to earth. On this, furious father Vayu takes away all the wind there is on the earth. People and animals start to collapse, plants start to wither away. All the deities then bless little Hanuman and revive him. Vayu returns wind to the planet as an act of forgiveness. Phew!

See you in the 2nd part of the series ! Got any questions? Ask away!

Environmental impacts of electricity generation


12405408174_34876434d0_o(Image: Flickr user ssedov)

Electricity. How do we make it? How does it affect our environment? There are several forms of energy that can be converted to electrical energy. And there are environmental issues related to each of these power sources. Here’s a list of power sources:

  • Nuclear
  • Water (hydroelectric power and tidal power)
  • Geothermal
  • Biomass
  • Solar
  • Wind
  • Fossil fuels

Lightning (scientists have tried harvesting lightning energy) and static electricity (triboelectric effect) are two rather unconventional ways that people have tried to obtain electricity from. Scientists have also tried to obtain energy by splitting water (fuel cells). Each of the above power sources has their environmental limitations/issues. Let’s try to understand these one by one.

Fossil fuels:

Fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas are burnt and there is a release of energy that needs to be stored and transported. In case of coal, the energy obtained from burning it drives a steam turbine generator. While, the energy obtained from burning natural gas drives a combustion turbine. These power stations are called as coal fired power stations and natural gas fired stations respectively.

Each of these stations spews tons and tons of greenhouse gases that lead to proliferation of atmospheric temperature. Just like volcanoes, but at a relatively higher scale. Studies report that projected anthropogenic CO2 emissions amounted for 35 billion metric tons (gigatons) in 2010. This amount of CO2 overshadows the annual CO2 emissions of all the world’s degassing subaerial and submarine volcanoes.

Then there is soot or black carbon. Soot is carbon particles produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. The black smoke that comes out of a car contains this soot. It causes global warming. Unlike other aerosols/particulate matter, black carbon absorbs sunlight instead of reflecting it back. Hence, the atmospheric temperature increases with increase in black carbon.

But what about natural gas? Isn’t it the cleanest fossil fuel? It is clean when compared to coal. ‘Clean’ or ‘green’ are nothing but relative terms. One technology is ‘better cleaner and greener’ than the other. Let’s not forget that natural gas is mainly methane and methane is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

Nuclear power:

Nuclear power is what keeps us on our toes more than any other power source out there. It has the potential to solve all our energy woes and at the same time is also capable of huge destruction. The recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster means we are yet to perfect this technology.

Water (hydroelectric power and tidal power):

Hydroelectricity can only comes from dams. Dams mean an interruption to the natural flow of water and disturbance to the aquatic system. Dams have also triggered earthquakes. Tidal power on the other hand has the same disturbing effect on the aquatic system.


While extracting heat from underneath Earth’s surface, we also unleash various greenhouse gases but are relatively far less in quantity than that emitted by fossil fuels. Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract geothermal energy, hence it can trigger earthquakes.


Leftover biomass is a good candidate for power generation. ‘Leftover’ is better than crops that are specifically produced for power generation. Because if they are new crops, we’d be needing pesticides etc. to produce these crops and this would consume energy, land and time.

Solar and wind power:

We can see that not all are perfect energy sources. Now, compare all of them to solar and wind. Problem is with the creation of panels and wind mills. If these production processes become less and less polluting and provide us with good return on investment in terms of energy and materials, we may see solar and wind power eventually become the best of the best.